If a clinical breast exam identifies a breast lump, calcifications that look suspicious are seen on a mammogram, or an ultrasound or MRI identifies an area that looks abnormal, typically the next step is a biopsy. A biopsy is a sample of cells or tissue. The biopsy is sent to a cytologist or pathologist who will look at it closely under a microscope and may also perform tests on the cells to learn more about them. Either a fine-needle biopsy or a core biopsy will be done to get the cell or tissue sample. A fine-needle like the kind used to draw blood biopsy takes only a few cells out of the lump; a larger-needle biopsy, called a core, cuts a small piece out of the lump.
Estrogen Receptor-Positive Proliferating Cells in the Normal and Precancerous Breast
Biopsy - Dr Susan Love Foundation for Breast Cancer Research
Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound allow the classification as either malignant, intermediate or benign based on work published by Stavros et al. In all cases of lesions other than those which are absolutely benign, real time review by the radiologist is mandatory. Review of the mammogram is essential when interpretation of an ultrasound is performed. In patients over the age of 40 years, both modalities are performed and interpreted in tandem. Any lesion classified as benign must be benign on both modalities. Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. Updating… Please wait.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether in situ proliferations known to be associated with different levels of risk for developing breast cancer contain these coexpressing cells and, if so, the stage at which they occur. There was no difference in nonlesional tissue between cancerous and noncancerous breasts. The percentage of dual-expressing cells was significantly increased, however, in all of the in situ proliferations and correlated positively with the level of risk of developing breast cancer. The mechanism may involve the loss of a tumor suppresser gene.